A diabetic diet is an essential part of treatment

vegetables and fruits for the treatment of diabetes

The medical community argues that a diagnosed diabetic needs not only special medications but necessarily a lifestyle change when diet and treatment are equally important ingredients. A diabetic diet should help maintain a balance between carbohydrate intake and spending on the body to maintain work. Without adherence to the diet of diabetics, it is impossible to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism, so diet control becomes a key part of treatment.

Diabetes: a lifelong disease

increased appetite in diabetics

The World Health Organization gives the following definition of diabetes. It is a chronic disease that develops when the pancreas is unable to produce as much insulin as the body needs, or when the synthesized insulin cannot be used effectively. In the world, this disease occurs in both men and women.

Diabetes mellitus is named after two Latin words, one of which meant continuous loss of fluid with constant thirst, and the other of which indicated the sweet taste of urine in diabetics due to its high glucose content.

The body needs glucose as its main source of energy. Metabolic processes are impossible without it. In order for the cells in most tissues in the human body to absorb glucose from food, the pancreatic hormone, insulin, is needed. If this hormone is not enough or the cells stop interacting with insulin, a lot of glucose builds up in the blood and symptoms of diabetes appear. Typical symptoms of the disease include frequent urination, patients are constantly thirsty and hungry, but lose weight quickly.

An indicative feature of the condition of the body that allows the symptoms of diabetes to be confirmed or refuted is a blood test for glycated (or glycosylated) hemoglobin. The more glucose that accumulates in the blood, the higher the percentage of hemoglobin cells associated with it. The percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin is calculated as a percentage: if the value of the test is ≥ 6, 5, the doctor will diagnose the diabetes in advance and prescribe further tests.

The causes of high blood sugar are not always related to diabetes. Acute hyperglycemia occurs during stress when a person eats an uncontrolled amount of high calorie food at one time. In addition to diabetes, stroke, heart attack and some infections can also cause your blood sugar to rise. If your blood sugar is still elevated as a result of your diabetes, your doctor will select the right medications and help you adjust your diet.

Dietary characteristics of different types of diabetes

weight measuring products for diabetes

The diet for diabetes mellitus is chosen depending on the type of disease. In type 1 diabetes, nutrition — when glucose uptake is impaired due to insufficient insulin synthesis — requires not only reducing the amount of carbohydrates in the diet, but also carefully controlling their intake to avoid life-threatening diabetic coma. No less risky is the hypoglycaemia of diabetes mellitus, which occurs in patients who are starting to take insulin preparations and which are poorly combined with the diet of diabetics. This condition occurs when there is not enough nutrition. Salvation is the consumption of foods rich in fast carbohydrates.

The diet for type 2 diabetes, when the problem with glucose uptake lies in the cell’s inability to accept insulin, is mostly based on weight loss, as obesity is usually the cause of insulin resistance. The peculiarities of a diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus are that they exclude easily available carbohydrates from the menu, but be sure to include foods that contain a lot of different dietary fiber.

One form of the disease that requires an immediate change in diet to reject fast carbohydrates and high-calorie foods is decreased glucose tolerance or latent diabetes mellitus. It is called prediabetes because without proper treatment and diet, latent diabetes mellitus gradually develops all the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Experts note that prediabetes is more often diagnosed in men, and this is explained by a lack of attention to their health. This type of disease can develop without specific symptoms and is occasionally detected by bleeding, and regular examination is rare in men. It increases the risk of prediabetes and a high-calorie diet with low physical activity. However, some studies show that drinking small amounts of wine in men reduces the risk of this condition becoming type 2 diabetes.

A rather rare type of diabetes - insipidus, which occurs underlying pathology of the pituitary gland and kidney damage. A diet that triggers diabetes insipidus can significantly alleviate and compensate. The diabetes insipidus diet is based on protein restriction, with enough carbohydrates and fat on the menu and frequent meals.

Diabetes-Related Diseases and Conditions: How to Eat Properly

apples in diabetes during pregnancy

One of the diseases closely related to diabetes is a disorder of the thyroid gland when its functions are performed at the lower limit of normal (hypothyroidism). Reputable endocrinological studies have shown that without proper treatment, patients with hypothyroidism and weight gain will become prediabetic within one year. In the future, they are twice as likely to develop full-blown type 2 diabetes as people with normal thyroid function. On the other hand, hypothyroidism may develop later in the background of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and in men it may also cause potency loss. For any type of diabetes, even if you have hypothyroidism, you should have a strictly low carb diet.

Another disease that often accompanies diabetes is arterial hypertension. In type 1 diabetes, high blood pressure is caused by kidney damage, and in type 2 diabetes, the problem is often complicated by hyperthyroidism, which leads to atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. With this combination, your doctor may recommend not only drugs that stabilize blood pressure, but also a special diet for diabetes and high blood pressure - without salt and salty foods.

A special condition associated with the development of insulin resistance is gestational diabetes, which can occur during pregnancy. This type of diabetes in women involves the production of hormones needed for the fetus to develop, but sometimes these hormones block the insulin sensation of the cells. Gestational diabetes typically resolves after the baby is born. But if a woman’s weight becomes overweight, she is likely to switch to type 2 diabetes. In the case of diabetes, the pregnant woman should eat a full diet but reduce her intake of fats and sugars, especially refined sugar, regulate weight gain, and the diet should include eating small portions evenly throughout the day.

System and diet - important rules for diabetes

fractional nutrition in diabetes

The main therapeutic function of diabetes is to normalize all the important metabolic processes in the body caused by problems with the absorption of glucose. The person who first learned of his or her diagnosis should understand that diabetes is not a death sentence but a lifestyle change. To feel normal, you need to learn how to keep your blood sugar under control. This helps to maintain a diet and a special diet.

Your doctor will tell you how to eat if you have diabetes, depending on its type. In type 1 diabetes, insulin replacement therapy is the primary and diet is supportive. However, treatment prescribed by a doctor according to the rules can either make it more effective or nullify it. Therefore, the sugar content of the diet should be carefully monitored so that the effect of insulin matches the calories consumed.

Dietary therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus is primary, as glucose absorption can only be improved by normalizing body weight, and for this, the diet must be low in calories.

Important dietary rules to follow in diabetes, regardless of type:

  • eat at least 5-6 times a day, in small portions, so that the carbohydrates from the food are absorbed evenly and the glucose level in the blood does not jump too sharply;
  • sit down at a table at a certain time to make it easier to control the dose of your medicine and your blood sugar;
  • try to maintain the same calorie intake from day to day and depending on the meal (every breakfast, lunch, etc. ).

The diet is developed under the supervision of a doctor: only a specialist can recommend what diet the patient can and should follow. For example, in type 2 diabetes, a protein diet can significantly reduce excess weight and is more effective for many patients than a low-calorie diet. Doctors advise you to be extremely careful with such fast weight loss options, such as a 10 kg weight loss program in 7 days or adding weight loss energy diets. There is a high risk of exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases and may exacerbate metabolic disorders.

Approved and recommended foods for diabetics

fruits and berries for the treatment of diabetes

The nuances of the diet of diabetes are that the amount of energy that is taken into the body through food must match the amount of energy used. In this case, the diet is calculated on the basis of a clear balance of the main macronutrients - about 100 g of protein, 80 g of fat and 300 g of carbohydrates.

Special calculation measures have been performed for diabetics - bread units (XE) to select a diet. In different countries, 12 g of sugar or 15 g of carbohydrate are consumed per unit of bread (equivalent to about 1 slice of wheat bread). The more carbohydrates on the menu, the higher the dose of insulin you need to quench them. The diet of patients with diabetes mellitus should include 18-24 XE daily.

To choose the right diet for patients with diabetes, you should remember that only carbohydrates increase blood sugar levels, and foods that contain excess protein and fat can be consumed without restriction, at a normal weight. However, blood sugar levels in diabetes rise very little when most fruits and vegetables are on the menu (except for potatoes).

Eat a varied and complete diet, taking into account the carbohydrate content of different products and substituting them for each other, while remaining at 7-8 XE per meal. If you crave something sweet, you can easily indulge in some delicacies while modifying other foods and the amount of insulin you inject. For diabetics, sweet and sour fruits and berries are a good snack when they crave something delicious. It’s also convenient to add them to the menu for an afternoon snack.

Among the foods suggested in the diet for diabetes, we highlight vegetables rich in plant fibers (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, green peas, tomatoes), which cause a feeling of fullness. In type 2 diabetes, a good way to support the liver and reduce the risk of atherosclerosis is to include foods with lipotropic properties (oatmeal, soy, cottage cheese) on the menu.

In addition to diet, your doctor may prescribe bioactive supplements that improve the sensitivity of tissue cells to insulin hormone. Lipoic acid formulations for the treatment of diabetes and chromium have this activity. One of the options for choosing foods with optimal selection of diabetes ingredients is special enteral nutrition. These are nutritional mixtures that have no glucose at all and the carbohydrate sources are starch, fructose, maltodextrin and dietary fiber.

Prohibited foods for diabetes

the doctor recommends a diabetic diet to the patient

Nutritional therapy for diabetes mellitus has a number of restrictions on what to eat and drink. So it is forbidden to use sweets in liquid form as blood sugar levels jump from them very quickly (although with hypoglycemia this can save the situation). We talk about juices, sweet tea, cocoa, lemonade. Men generally regret the information that they have to give up all alcohol, including beer, as these drinks also rapidly raise blood sugar levels.

Doctors do not recommend lactose for the treatment of diabetes, which is found in milk and fermented dairy products. It can stimulate cholesterol synthesis and increase the risk of dangerous vascular atherosclerosis in diabetes.

The bans on diabetes apply to spicy and savory snacks, spicy and smoked foods, fresh buns and pastries, certain fruits (bananas, grapes) and sweet delicacies (ice cream, raisins, chocolate). It will be necessary to treat diabetes mellitus by combining the medications prescribed by your doctor and a balanced diet, and then the disease will simply become a special lifestyle without disrupting its normal course.